# 1.1. Python¶

## 1.1.1. Tuples¶

The tuple type is somewhat controversial in Python. The following discussion is not intended to be an attack on this type, but will highlight some of the elements of the controversy.

### 1.1.1.1. Versus Lists¶

From a strictly functional perspective, the major difference between a tuple and a list is that a tuple contains an immutable sequence whereas a list does not. Beyond this, some people in the Python community claim that the list type is intended for homogeneous collections whereas the tuple type is intended for heterogeneous collections with a fixed ordering. For example, see the discussions at:

However, the Python language does not enforce the distinction between homogeneity and heterogeneity for the two types. Pretending that it is actually there seems a bit like wearing the emperor’s new clothes. Furthermore, most examples cited to support the alleged fixed ordering property rely upon the immutability of the sequence to enforce this. But, as is often the case, the semantics of something is in the eye of the beholder.

### 1.1.1.2. Named Tuples¶

In Python 2.6, the namedtuple type factory was introduced into the collections package of the standard library. Types, created with this factory, contain collections with a fixed ordering. Thus, the claims made about this property of the tuple type can be enforced in types out of the namedtuple factory. Therefore, if you need the fixed ordering property, it is recommended that you create types with this factory and use them. These types can be used in nearly any situation in which a plain tuple can be used.

Types, created with namedtuple, have some additional advantages over the tuple type:

• They are named, and their names are reflected in the strings returned by functions such as repr and type.
• They can be instantiated with positional or keyword arguments, where the keywords are the names of their sequence members.
• Sequence members of their instances can be accessed by name as well as by index.

Here are some examples of preferred and avoided usages:

from collections import namedtuple
Point = namedtuple( "Point", "x y" )
OneTuple = namedtuple( "OneTuple", "u" )

some_dict = { Point( 3, 4 ): "foo" }   # prefer
some_dict = { ( 3, 4 ): "foo" }        # avoid

p = Point( 5, 12 ); p.x**2 + p.y**2       # prefer
p = Point( 5, 12 ); p[ 0 ]**2 + p[ 1 ]**2 # avoid
p = ( 5, 12 ); p[ 0 ]**2 + p[ 1 ]**2      # avoid

OneTuple( 42 ) # sequence containing an integer
( 42 )         # uncontained integer
tuple( 42 )    # ERROR


### 1.1.1.3. Syntactic Sugar¶

Avoid the syntactic sugar for tuples (parentheses) whenever possible, because of the following reasons:

• Parentheses are already used for expression grouping and invoking callables. Too many parentheses can make source code harder to read.
• The initialization of a 1-tuple cannot be disambiguated from a grouped expression, except with the inclusion of a trailing comma. Programming error can creep in when the size of a tuple initializer is reduced to one element from a higher number of elements or increased to one element from no elements, as the trailing comma may be forgotten.

Here are some examples of preferred and avoided usages:

[ ]         # prefer
tuple( )    # prefer if sequence immutability is desired
( )         # avoid

[ 1 ]          # prefer
tuple( [ 1 ] ) # prefer if sequence immutability is desired
( 1, )         # avoid

[ 1, 2, 4 ]          # prefer
tuple( [ 1, 2, 4 ] ) # prefer if sequence immutability is desired
( 1, 2, 4 )          # avoid

return "a", 1, foo      # prefer
return ( "a", 1, foo )  # avoid

from utilia.compat import iter_dict_items
for key, val in iter_dict_items( some_dict )       # prefer
for ( key, val ) in iter_dict_items( some_dict )   # avoid


If you care about linguistic symmetry or code aesthetics, then consider the following contrasts:

[ 42 ]   # asymmetric with tuple, symmetric with set
( 42, )  # asymmetric with list and set
{ 42 }   # asymmetric with tuple, symmetric with list
# Note: Sugar for set is only available in Python 2.7 and 3.x.

tuple( [ 1, 2, 4 ] )      # symmetric with set
set( [ 1, 2, 4 ] )        # symmetric with tuple


## 1.1.2. Lists¶

### 1.1.2.1. Lists Of Tuples¶

An OrderedDict can be used to accumulate key-value pairs in an order-preserving manner. These accumulated pairs can later be retrieved as tuples via a standard iteration method. This is cleaner than appending tuples to a list.

from utilia.compat import iter_dict_items
from utilia.compat.collections import OrderedDict

od = OrderedDict( )
od[ "foo" ] = 1
od[ "bar" ] = 2
# ...
od[ "baz" ] = 3

for key, value in iter_dict_items( od ):
# Do stuff.


In cases where lists of tuples can be generated automatically, then the use of a tuple type, produced by the namedtuple factory, is preferred. If anonymity and mutability are acceptable, then using a list of lists is preferred.

from collections import namedtuple

# prefer: list of named tuples
Pair = namedtuple( "Pair", "x y" )
[ Pair( x, y ) for x in xrange( 10 ) for y in xrange( 10 ) ]
# prefer: list of lists
[ [ x, y ] for x in xrange( 10 ) for y in xrange( 10 ) ]
# avoid
[ tuple( [ x, y ] ) for x in xrange( 10 ) for y in xrange( 10 ) ]
# avoid
[ ( x, y ) for x in xrange( 10 ) for y in xrange( 10 ) ]


## 1.1.3. Sets¶

### 1.1.3.1. Syntactic Sugar¶

As the present aim is to support Python 2.6 in addition to higher versions, we cannot use the syntactic sugar for the set type, which is available in Python 2.7 and 3.x. Therefore:

set( [ 1, 2, 4 ] )        # use
{ 1, 2, 4 }               # do not use